A fishing ground
The Zhoushan Fishing Ground is China's biggest near-sea fishing ground, with an area of 53.000 square kilometers and a water depth ranging between 20 and 40 meters. It enjoys equal fame with Russia's Thousand Islands Fishing Ground, Canada's Newfoundland Fishing Ground, and Peru's Peru Fishing Ground.
The monthly average maximum temperature of the water surface is 28 to 29 degrees centigrade in the summer and below eight degrees centigrade in the winter. The steady injection of runoff from the continent carries to the fishing ground large quantifies of silt that combines with the nutrient salts in the seawater to nourish the quickly multiplying plankton. There are 151 species of planktonic algae and 123 planktonic protozoa in the shallow sea areas. Thanks to the superior geological, hydrological and biological conditions, the Zhoushan Fishing Ground and surrounding sea areas are suitable habitats for a variety of fish to spawn, grow, find food, and tide over the winter. The area offers 363 species of fish, 60 species of shrimps, 11 species of crabs, more than 20 species of sea mammals. 134 species of shell creatures, and 154 species of algae. Among these, the large yellow croaker, little yellow croaker, hairtail, and cuttlefish are by far the major catches.
Shenjiamen is one of the largest fishing ports serving the fishing ground. The harbor has a water area of 10 square kilometers, with an average depth of 3.4 meters. Able to accommodate more than five thousand fishing vessels, it is the fishing ground's main anchorage and distribution center for aquatic products. According to a book written in the year 1125, Shenjiamen, tucked in mountains on all sides, had only a dozen or so households engaged in fishing or firewood gathering. In the year 1409, during the Ming Emperor Yongle's reign, it was converted into a water stockade. It was rebuilt in the late 19th century and its northern coast was reinforced with a stone seawall. During the early 20th century, a parallel road, four to six meters wide on average, was built and paved with stone planks to facilitate the travels by fishermen and businessmen. Presently, there are 64 stone quays along the coast.
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